A new idea for how foundations can support local news coverage

By Mary Lou Fulton

People who tune in to NPR or PBS news programs are familiar with sponsorship messages such as  “coverage made possible by support from the such-and-such foundation.”  The way this works in practice is that foundations give money to pay for the salaries, benefits and other expenses of journalists who report on a particular topic area.   It’s mutually understood that the purpose of this funding is not to elicit coverage of a foundation or its grant recipients.  The grants are a vote in confidence in the value of independent journalism, with decision-making authority resting solely with editors and reporters.

I learned more about this type of funding after joining The California Endowment last year as a program manager overseeing communications and media grants, which included support of California-based NPR stations.   The Endowment is the state’s largest health foundation, and my job is make grants that increase the quantity and quality of journalism about community health.  Working with our NPR grants made me wonder:  Could this approach also be used to support health journalism at local newspapers?

I come from a newspaper background, having started at The Associated Press and gone on to reporter/editor positions at The Los Angeles Times, digital media roles at The Washington Post and new product development work at The Bakersfield Californian.   I know that beat assignments play a large role in shaping news coverage, and I wondered whether local newspapers would be open to adding a new community health reporting position.  So I floated the idea to a few newspapers, and am pleased to report that we have funded new positions at The Oakland Tribune, Vida en el Valle (the state’s largest bilingual newspaper, based in Fresno) and at The Merced Sun-Star.   Mike Tharp, executive editor in Merced, wrote a column today telling readers about this new health reporting position and why he said yes to the idea.

With all the grants I make, I spend a fair amount of time up front to discuss the scope and objectives for the project.   To help introduce the concept to editors, knowing they might be a bit suspicious, I wrote up a short description of what I had in mind for this beat:

The California Endowment proposes underwriting the cost (salary and benefits) for a full-time journalist to cover a new beat called Community Health that focuses on the ways that health is related to where you live.   Public health research has found that factors related to your neighborhood – whether you live near a park, whether streets are safe, whether you have easy access to grocery stores that sell fresh foods, whether you breathe clean air – are much more reliable predictors of your health than whether you can see a doctor when you’re sick.  This beat would include topics that are commonly covered by local news reporters, but would look at them through a different lens – that of health.   For example, a City Hall reporter might go to a city council meeting and write a story about the politics behind the approval of a new housing development whereas the Community Health reporter would write about whether health issues such the provision of parks, walking trails, grocery stores and access to public transit were considered in the planning process.  This beat would shine a spotlight on how people living just a few miles away from each other experience a different quality of life and even life expectancy based on where they live.  But this beat also could highlight solutions from government, business and  community members working to improve conditions in their neighborhoods.

This beat is NOT for the purpose of covering anything related to The California Endowment or its grant programs. This proposal is consistent with The Endowment’s focus of increasing awareness of community health issues.  We envision this model could work in the same way as our support of NPR, where we’d agree on general coverage topics but are not involved with day-to-day operations.

I then asked interested editors to send me a list of story ideas for this beat, as a way to see if we had the same understanding of the beat and to offer a starting point for the reporter.  At Vida en el Valle, which serves Latinos in California’s Central Valley, the story ideas focused on topics that are especially relevant to Latinos such as obesity prevention in rural areas and environmental health issues.  You can see the work of Vida reporter Rebecca Plevin on this community health blog. At The Oakland Tribune, the beat will have a specific focus on how urban violence impacts public health.  And in Merced, the reporter will explore topics such as why Merced County residents out-drink and out-smoke the rest of the state, water quality and more.

I’m sure there will be some traditionalists in journalism who find this idea appalling.  Having worked in newsrooms, I can make the arguments against this concept as well as anyone, so let me spell them out for you here.

1.  Is this an effort to promote The California Endowment or its grant projects?  What is your agenda? The Endowment is a private, nonpartisan foundation.  We  are prohibited by law from lobbying and make grants based on the income earned from our core endowment fund (meaning we don’t solicit or accept funds from outside sources.)  We were created 14 years ago when Blue Cross converted from a nonprofit to a for-profit health care provider, and the state legislature decided to use the tax credits on the books to create two health foundations.   Our mission is focused on improving the health of underserved people who don’t have an equal opportunity to live a healthy life because they are poor, or live in an unhealthy environment, or are not a priority for the institutions that are supposed to serve them.    To me, this mission is consistent with this century-old quote by journalist Finley Peter Dunne, who said, “”The job of the newspaper is to comfort the afflicted and afflict the comfortable.” I hope that’s what these new community health reporters will do.

2.  These are local news reporters working in communities where The Endowment is investing money in community health projects.   Won’t this be a conflict of interest for the reporter? This is a legitimate concern, but given that news decisions are in the hands of editors, we have to trust them to guard against bias toward or against The Endowment.   I also hope that newspapers will be transparent, as Merced editor Mike Tharp was, in telling readers about The Endowment’s support of these positions just as NPR does through its sponsorship announcements.

3.  Will you complain about stories or pull the plug on funding if you don’t like the coverage? No, we understand that reporters and editors will make independent judgments about stories.   Like all readers, we will find some stories more valuable than others, but we have no wish to control the day-to-day operations of a newsroom.  We fund independent journalism across California because we believe that more and better health reporting benefits the community, raises awareness about the importance of health and helps support media organizations that play an important role in communities.

4.  Won’t editorial independence be compromised by having this new reporter be a dedicated resource focused on community health, versus being able to pull this reporter to work the night police beat or any story that comes along? I suppose you could look at it this way, although I would argue that the community health beat concept is not a huge constraint because the definition is so broad that it could be applied to a wide variety of story topics, from local government to land use to violence or health care.   And I’d also point out that newsrooms  already face the even larger constraint of local advertising revenue determining the size of their staffs, meaning the number of reporters you have is dependent on the number of trucks the local Ford dealer can sell.  Revenue diversification is a big buzzword in media, and I think that editors have an opportunity to play a role here by being willing to explore non-advertising revenue such as foundation support.

Of course, foundation dollars are not the silver bullet for local journalism; nothing is. But I wanted to spell out my thinking behind these grants in the hope that others will take up this idea if it sounds appealing.  I would never suggest that the energy beat be sponsored by the ExxonMobil Foundation, but nonpartisan foundations that focus on news  topics such as education, health and the environment could find they have a lot in common with local media organizations.

Additionally, local community foundations are great potential partners for newspapers, and the Knight Foundation has created the Community Information Challenge fund specifically to inspire local news ideas and partnerships.   In fact, the Knight Foundation was among the first to support the idea of foundation-funded beats through a grant to the Arkansas Community Foundation.

We live in a time when the traditional economic models for media are crumbling beneath our feet, but the need for high-quality information is greater than ever.   I’m glad that editors like Mike Tharp in Merced, Martin Reynolds at The Oakland Tribune and Juan Esparza at Vida en el Valle are willing to take a chance on this new idea and hope it will pave the way for others — both foundations and news organizations — to do the same.

There’s more than music going on in Coachella

By Mary Lou Fulton

If you’ve heard of Coachella, odds are it’s because of the popular annual music festival by the same name that this year drew 75,000 people per day, more than twice the population of this rural California desert community.

But there’s a lot more than music going on in Coachella, as I learned last week when I visited there to help launch a new youth media grant funded by The California Endowment and led by New America Media, the nation’s largest ethnic media network.  In the coming months, our funds will be used to create to hire and train young journalists who will create a web site and other forms of media to tell the world more about life in Coachella — the good, the bad and everything in between.

Coachella is one of the 14 neighborhoods in The Endowment’s Building Healthy Communities initiative.  Coachella is home to many farm workers and Native Americans who struggle with chronic health conditions such as diabetes, asthma, hypertension and cancer. More than 97% of Coachella’s residents are Latino, and nearly 30% of families are below the poverty line.

Like many underserved communities, Coachella lacks any kind of meaningful and consistent local news coverage.  The regional newspaper, The Desert Sun, doesn’t have a reporter who regularly writes about Coachella, and in fact, has stopped offering home delivery of paper in the area, a common cost-cutting move among newspapers when there are relatively few subscribers in a rural area. There is no community newspaper or web site serving Coachella and local television stations don’t show up except when there are terrible crimes, such as a recent incident in which a 17-year-old boy was doused with gasoline and set ablaze in a local park.

But just because there are no news outlets doesn’t mean there isn’t news.  In a lively meeting with community leaders and local youth, we heard many stories worth telling.  Some stories left me feeling angry and sad, such as learning about how about how Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) officers trailed cars in Coachella, waiting for parents to drop off their kids at school and then deporting the parents, leaving children to fend for themselves.  Or hearing about how many neighborhoods lack basic amenities such as safe drinking water, clean air, paved streets and sidewalks, as depicted in Contaminated Valley, an award-winning video by students at Desert Mirage High School.

But we also heard heard many stories of resilience and hope that were all the more remarkable considering the challenges of day-to-day life in Coachella.  For instance, Coachella Valley High School offers a range of Partnership Academies that integrate academics, career, and technical education. Participating students receive on-the-job experience and training through job shadowing.  One youth spoke enthusiastically about the Health Academy, through which he had spent time at a local clinic and even observed a baby being born at a local hospital.

Another Coachella Valley High School program helps prepare parents to send their children to college, with a focus on helping parents feel more comfortable about allowing their kids to move away from home to continue their education.  As a teenager, I had to do battle with my Mexican-born mother to persuade her to allow me to accept a scholarship from a university 180 miles from home, so I definitely see the value in this kind of training.

There was also great pride in the achievements of local residents, such as Desert Mirage High School graduate Maria Rodriguez, the first Coachella student to be named Gates Millennium Scholar, and Coachella Mayor Eduardo Garcia, a native son who is among the youngest mayors in California at age 33.

And beyond the bad news and the good news, we learned some interesting facts about Coachella, as you often do when visiting someplace new.  On the drive to the beautiful new Boys and Girls Club where our meeting took place, we noticed some street names that seemed unusual:  Baghdad, Damascus, Tripoli and Cairo.  It turns out that those streets were named in recognition of the local prominence of dates, an agricultural crop that originated in the Middle East.  And we learned that the mascot of Coachella Valley High School is the Arab.

And oh, about that famous music festival?  Turns out it’s not even held in Coachella, but in the neighboring city of Indio. In addition to piggybacking on Coachella’s name, the festival also claimed the coachella.com web address — the city itself had to settle for coachella.org.  The festival tickets are so expensive ($269 for all three days, with no single day passes sold) that most Coachella residents can’t afford to go.  To support the local community, the festival donates $3 per ticket to charities, with the only local beneficiary being the Indio Youth Task Force.

I look forward to next spring, when our new local media outlet will be thriving and when I imagine young Coachella journalists calling up festival organizers to ask, “So you use the name of our community, sell thousands of t-shirts and sweatshirts bearing the name Coachella without any royalties paid to us, sell tickets at prices that few local people can afford and not a dime comes back to our city — what’s up with that?”

What we do with our “Cognitive Surplus”

By Mary Lou Fulton

I first discovered the Internet in 1994, before there was such a thing as a search engine and just months after the first web browser, Mosaic, had been invented.   I was initiated into the digital world through e-mail lists, which offered an immediate and intuitive understanding of what makes the Internet so powerful.   People the world over were communicating and sharing information in an unprecedented ways.

It was in trying to grasp the power and possibilities of the Internet that I first stumbled across the writings of Clay Shirky, who has the rare combination of geek cred and the ability to describe big ideas in ways that everyone can understand.   Shirky said that the Internet was the first invention to enable real-time and simultaneous collaboration since someone came up with the idea of adding a third leg to a table.

Since then I have been a fan of Shirky, who just released a new book called “Cognitive Surplus: Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age” in which he argues that social isolation, primarily driven by TV watching, has resulted in our minds becoming dormant as we endlessly pondered whether Gilligan would ever get off that island.  But now, Shirky argues, the Internet has offered new and more compelling options for what to do with our free time.

“Television was a solitary activity that crowded out other forms of social connection. But the very nature of these new technologies fosters social connection—creating, contributing, sharing. When someone buys a TV, the number of consumers goes up by one, but the number of producers stays the same. When someone buys a computer or mobile phone, the number of consumers and producers both increase by one. This lets ordinary citizens, who’ve previously been locked out, pool their free time for activities they like and care about. So instead of that free time seeping away in front of the television set, the cognitive surplus is going to be poured into everything from goofy enterprises like lolcats, where people stick captions on cat photos, to serious political activities like Ushahidi.com, where people report human rights abuses,” Shirky said in a Q&A with Wired magazine.

That Q&A was a great conversation between Shirky and Daniel Pink, another of my favorite thinkers.  Pink added, “We have a biological drive. We eat when we’re hungry, drink when we’re thirsty, have sex to satisfy our carnal urges. We also have a second drive—we respond to rewards and punishments in our environment. But what we’ve forgotten—and what the science shows—is that we also have a third drive. We do things because they’re interesting, because they’re engaging, because they’re the right things to do, because they contribute to the world. The problem is that, especially in our organizations, we stop at that second drive. We think the only reason people do productive things is to snag a carrot or avoid a stick.”

A quick look at the Alexa.com rankings of most popular U.S. web sites shows what Shirky and Pink are talking about.  Six of the top 10 sites are drive by individuals creating and sharing content.  This has been true for years (I track these stats and often include them in presentations), though MySpace has given way to Facebook and Twitter will soon overtake eBay.

The internet continues to grow because its capabilities appeal to our hard wiring as social creatures who intuitively seek opportunities to connect, collaborate and be part of a larger community.  It’s good to know that impulse is still within us and can give Gilligan a run for his money.

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